Although we will probably never have a complete list of individual CCC efforts in Colorado, the agency kept a variety of statistics on projects at the time. Thanks to a request last week, we’re going to try to recap some of the more visible ones here, but that will be a work in progress! Meanwhile, here’s some general information. (Also see our Projects page.)According to Director James J. McEntee’s final report, 35,495 Colorado men, out of 57,944 total, were employed here during the program’s 9.5-year duration. They received more than $63.7 million in pay, of which almost $7 million was sent home to benefit their families. Click image to enlarge this summary report, from the National Archives (NARA) at College Park, MD, via Bob Audretsch. An agency-by-agency overview of work in the first three years is here.
Listing camps, as with projects, is also complicated. Although some were stable for years, other camps moved locations or switched designations. Many camps set up “side” or “fly” camps, smaller groups of men settled away from the base temporarily to work on particular projects. Working through these challenges in his three years of research, historian Audretsch has arrived at a total of 125 camps in Colorado over the life of the CCCs. The summary report above estimates an average of 34 camps were active in Colorado at any given time.
In January 1934, the Steamboat Pilot newspaper provided a summary for the first season in 1933:
A total of 289,433 days were devoted to field work during the past summer at the 23 civilian conservation camps in Colorado. The maximum strength of these camps was 4600 men, of which 2800 were enrolled in Colorado, 1300 from Oklahoma, 460 from Texas and 40 from Wyoming. The fieldtime represents the work of 2000 men for a period of 100 days.
Our camp lists on this site are still incomplete. The U.S. Forest Service oversaw more CCC camps in-state and nationwide than any other technical service agency. Our coverage here has so far neglected the 52 forest camps, so we’ll try to get more posted about their work soon. These camps will be featured in Volume 1 of Audretsch’s book.
Colorado Book Coming Soon!
Audretsch, Robert W., “The Civilian Conservation Corps in Colorado, Volume 1” will be published by Dog Ear Publishing by July 2017 and available on Amazon.
Among the original Chapter 7 alumni, we are now down to a precious few, three remaining widows of the CCC boys who were members. Thelma Armstrong, long-time secretary of the organization, passed away May 8. Her sister, Eva Burnham, and Irene O’Donoghue, long-time chaplain of the group, are still doing well, as is Katy Cruz. We are fortunate in the remarkable longevity many members of this generation have displayed!
Once I thought that watching our CCC friends leave us would be a constant grief. For the most part, it has been gradual, and often we don’t get news of the loss until long after. But we think often of the brighter days and good times at the Morrison Camp, where they gathered monthly in the spring and summer to celebrate the camaraderie they developed by being part of the Greatest Generation. They never forgot to thank their days in the Civilian Conservation Corps for giving them a start in life.
Those of us who had the opportunity to know them and work with them were privileged, and we will always remember these incredible individuals. That’s why we’re continually inspired to share their stories here.
Good news! There’s going to be a book on the Colorado CCC!!
For two years, author Bob Audretsch has been researching here and across Colorado, collecting material for his book on the CCC efforts here in our state. And we’ve been helping as best we can. A lot has happened in the last two years, and I need to write a major update, but for now, let’s just settle for this announcement. We hope the book will be available in the next year or so.
Bob’s book will become the go-to source for information on CCC work projects statewide. Among other sources, he’s been reviewing local newspapers around the area. They often reported what the CCC boys were doing in the small towns and remote forests of our state, and Bob is uncovering a treasure trove of information there. Bob has been sharing information with us as he goes along (and vice versa)!
Bob has already published books on the CCC in Arizona, where he was a ranger and interpreter at Grand Canyon National Park for many years. He moved to Colorado in 2014. We’ll share more on Bob’s Colorado work and discoveries soon.
Books by Robert W. Audretsch:
Shaping the Park and Saving the Boys
The Civilian Conservation Corps at Grand Canyon, 1933-1942
From May 1933 to June 1941, the park’s infrastructure advanced as much as fifty years with the installation of trails, buildings, trail resthouses, roads, telephone lines, and many other improvements.
2011. 140 pages. 72 b&w photos. 1 map. Bib. Index. $19.95 paper.
Grand Canyon’s Phantom Ranch
Located at the bottom of Grand Canyon along the Colorado River, Phantom Ranch was designed by architect Mary Jane Colter in 1921 and can only be reached by hiking, mule ride or river trip.
2012. 128 pages. 206 b&w photos. $21.99 paper.
We Still Walk In Their Footprint
The Civilian Conservation Corps in Northern Arizona, 1933-1942
In northern Arizona, the CCC boys planted trees, built roads and buildings, strung telephone lines, erected fences, constructed trails and campgrounds, put out forest fires, and rescued hundreds of ranchers and their livestock during the terrible winter of 1936-1937.
2013. 212 pages. 53 b&w photos. Bib. Index. $21.95 paper.
The Civilian Conservation Corps in Arizona
Robert W. Audretsch and Sharon E. Hunt Foreword by Michael I. Smith
In Arizona the CCC battled soil erosion on grazing lands, developed state and national parks, and improved the state’s national forest lands.
2014. 128 pages. 188 b&w photos. 3 maps. $21.99 paper.
I joined the CCCs in January of 1935 and spent the first six months on erosion control work at Co. 752 Camp Thayer, Hebron, NE. A job opened up in surveying, and I applied and got it, mapping farms with a transit, ‘sight-alidade’ on a plane table, and two rods. We helped farmers run their furrows across the slope of the hills, not up and down where the soil would wash away. For the maps, I took the plane-table sheet to the office and drew the contour maps, complete with roads, houses, rivers, and the lot. In January 1937 I got a promotion to Asst. SCS Clerk, still doing maps and copy-drafting the engineering drawings for the farmers. This was my chief work until I was mustered out in August of 1937.
I started keeping a diary. Here are a couple of entries from 1936.
Mon Feb. 24
Clear and 40 degrees. Had the Harlem Globe Trotters as guests at chow tonight. One of the basketballers had been in the Cs and told us some of his experiences there. Another sang for us, and one danced (tap danced). The Capt. put up $10 of his own money for us so we could borrow a dime and go see them play at the gym. What a game! They clowned around and in the last quarter started playing football and baseball with the basketball. They had the Hebron guys going around in circles, and everybody has a good time. The score: Globetrotters 30; Hebron Hoboes 20.
Tues. June 5
Partly cloudy and cool. Got in about 4:15, got dressed and went down town to get my suit. I also bought two shirts, two pairs of sox, two ties, and a pair of shoes. They gave me my choice of a belt, tie, or sox with the suit. I took the belt. The whole thing came to only $27.49. I think I got a good deal for the money. After chow we started construction of a darkroom for the photography class. Ran off five reels for the Ed. Advisor, wrote a letter to pop and hit the sack. Tired but proud. I am making my own way.
To say that the Cs shaped our lives is putting it mildly.
DONALD BESS, (CCC nickname: “Bessie”) most folks call me Don.
My parents homesteaded near Ballantine, MT and I was born in Billings. By rights, I suppose I should claim Montana as my state, but since we moved to Denver in 1922, I have a bumper sticker that says “Native” of Colorado. Things were tough, as all you CCCers remember, even in the Queen City of the Plains. My alma mater is the School of Hard Knocks (colors: black and blue) which I went to till about the 8th grade, then quit to go to work full time. I carried the Denver Post, worked at odd jobs and went up to sign up with the CCCs. They told me to come back in a month and they would let me in. I was 17 the day I went in.
Being from Denver I was inducted at Ft Logan, had my physical and got my shots, etc. The next day we took the train to Salida and then the narrow gauge to Telluride on the Galloping Goose to Placerville. I was one of the lucky ones as I got to ride in the cab while most of the guys had to ride in the box car. That should have been enough riding for one day, but we still had 30 to 35 rough miles to go in the back of a stake truck.
Finally, we reached our camp at Norwood (Co. 1842, F-48-C) about 35 miles from the Utah Line, elevation 7,017 feet. It was a drought relief camp, and since I did not have any special skills, I was assigned to the road building crew. We pushed the large boulders by hand and foot over the cliff and the grader kept uncovering more. I got muscles but also took sick and had to go to Ft. Logan hospital. After a few days I was OK and asked if I could do something to pass the time. They pointed to a mountain of potatoes—I guess I must have peeled a gillion. The cooks liked me and tried to get me a job as KP at $50 a month and room and board, but the job went to a war veteran.
I went back to duty at Co. 831 (F-51-C), Meredith, CO, one of the oldest companies in the nation. Our first job was tearing down an old ranger station, and starting a foundation for a new one. At work on the Chapman Dam, we had to shovel gravel, sand and cement into a cement mixer. The mixed cement then went into mining cars, wheeled on the tracks over a trestle, and then dumped into a chute. As the dam began to rise, so did my appetite. That dam is still there. And my appetite is just now beginning to abate.
When you go over to Glenwood and to the head waters of the Frying Pan River past Norrie, you can see the Chapman Dam and Campground built there by the CCC.
I’m proud of that little project. I know it will last because I helped build it.
My next job was interesting. Our crew put up forest service telephone lines. We dug the holes for the poles by hand, set the poles, with some of the poles having to have a guy wire hooked to a “dead man” (a pole buried longways in the ground). We forgot to creosote some of the poles before we had them up, so here we were up on the poles cutting the tops off to creosote them. One day I had climbed one of these poles stringing line when one of my climbers came loose, and there I was hanging by my safety belt upside down, hollering like a wild cat. My tools were all in the river, and to make matters worse, there was my foreman, Mr. Colter, laughing his head off at me. Try it sometime, it’s not the height that gets you, it’s the upside down stuff that hurts.
Our work in the Cs was hard for me, but it taught me to get along with all sorts of people. Your buddies’ lives depended on what you did.
In April 1944, the sweetheart you know as Lucy Bess became my wedded wife, making my life complete. I’ve been blessed with much in this life, and I am thankful to be an American living in the good old USA. My only wish is that we can keep it that way forever. At least, that’s the way I remember it all. (As told to Chet Nolte).
Chapter Eternal: Don Bess left us August 11, 2006, a few years after his beloved Lucy.
We recently received photos and materials related to CCC work at Durango, Camp SP-16-C. This report on the construction of the shelter at Reservoir Hill, known today as the Lion’s Den, provides great details to go with step-by-step photos received recently from the collection of Barbara Teyssier Forrest, daughter of the project supervisor, Edward Teyssier. See also La Plata County profile.
For photos and the rest of the story, see Lion’s Den Shelter, under Projects.
Forgive the late notice. The Aurora History Museum exhibit on the Civilian Conservation Corps continues through October 5th. Worth checking out, the exhibit includes many excellent, rarely seen photos from Colorado State Archives, as well as some from Denver Mountain Parks and Mile High Chapter 7 collections.
Last week, we went to the museum to present a talk on the CCC’s role in developing parks in the Front Range, called “From Poverty to Parks.” For this brown bag session, the room filled to capacity and those present seemed to appreciate the information provided. We even met a former CCC enrollee who shared his story! I hope to have excerpts from the presentation online here within a couple of weeks.
Contributions from the Loveland Historical Society, the University of Colorado Boulder Visual Resource Center, and other online sources enabled us to present a reasonably coherent view of park development from Fort Collins to Trinidad, Colorado. Of course, the MHC7 collections complemented the effort. I expect to be taking the presentation to Loveland next spring, and we’re available to share it elsewhere in the Front Range region as well. Email us at milehighchapter7 AT gmail DOT com to plan a presentation.
What’s next? How about a project to capture our own photos of CCC-built features in the Front Range? Please send us photos you capture of historic CCC sites in Colorado to help us create a complete story of the CCC in Colorado. (We know this is a long-term project!)
p.s. The “Wolves and Wild Lands” exhibit next to the CCC one is well worth visiting too!
Every now and then, we run across material in our research that helps us latter-day Americans understand what it was like to serve in the Civilian Conservation Corps. Today, we created a new “Perspective” page to share quotes and writings from the 1930s that help us empathize with those who served and gain a better idea of their lives in the CCC.
We hope you like it!
Thanks to extensive research and other efforts by Sharon Danhauer, of the Loveland Historical Society, we have now posted a camp profile for Namaqua Camp, SP-9-C. Although the camp itself is gone, Sharon did a great job documenting the buildings in Loveland Mountain Park that were built by the men of Namaqua Camp in 1935.